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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-9

Metabolic syndrome: a review

1 Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Parklane, Enugu, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Chidiebube Jeremiah Ugwu
Diabetes and Metabolism Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku Ozalla, Enugu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ajem.ajem_4_22

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Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a clinical construct that has continued to gain increasing global relevance due to the rising levels of obesity. It represents a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that include hypertension, central obesity, insulin resistance, and atherogenic dyslipidemia, and is strongly associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes and atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Regrettably, little consensus has been reached on the application of MetS despite several discoveries. This has limited its usefulness as a clinical tool. MetS as a clinical entity can be faulted as it lacks a scale to measure exactly how much each of its components contributes. Therefore, whether the syndrome as a whole counts more than the sum of its components is still uncertain. Even now, a clear pathophysiologic link between the components of MetS has not been identified, although many theories have been propoundedHowever, some progress has also been made on the link between Metabolic Syndrome and autoimmunity, rheumatic diseases, hyperuricaemia, cancer, dementias, infertility, and most recently non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In these conditions, the metabolic dysfunction in MetS is believed to cause dysfunction in the immune system and also an elevation in inflammatory markers. There is an increased incidence of MetS in patients with autoimmune and autoinflammatory conditions which may account for the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in these patients. In this review, the advances in the understanding and management of MetS are discussed including the conditions associated with MetS.

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